Schizophrenia and Psychosis

Diagnosis, Current Research Trends, and Model Treatment Approaches with Implications for Transitional Age Youth
  • Vivien Chan
    Correspondence
    501 Student Health, Student Health Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-5200.
    Affiliations
    501 Student Health, Student Health Center, University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-5200, USA

    Behavioral Health Services, Children, Youth & Prevention Division, Center for Resiliency Wellness & Education (First Episode Psychosis), Orange County Health Care Agency, 729 W Town & Country Road, Building E, Orange, CA 92868, USA

    Department of Psychiatry & Human Behavior, UCI Health, Orange, CA 92868, USA
    Search for articles by this author

      Keywords

      References

        • Ciompi L.
        The natural history of schizophrenia in the long term.
        Br J Psychiatry. 1980; 136: 413-420
        • Arnett J.
        Emerging adulthood: a theory of development from the late teens through the twenties.
        Am Psychol. 2000; 55: 469-480
        • Messias E.
        • Chen C.
        • Eaton W.
        Epidemiology of schizophrenia: review of findings and myths.
        Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2007; 30: 323-338
        • Welham J.
        • Thomas R.
        • McGrath J.
        Age-at-first-registration for affective psychosis and schizophrenia.
        Schizophr Bull. 2004; 30: 849-853
        • Saha S.
        • Chant D.
        • McGrath J.
        • et al.
        A systematic review of mortality in schizophrenia: is the differential mortality gap worsening over time?.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2007; 64: 1123-1131
        • Yang J.
        • Visscher P.
        • Wray N.
        Sporadic cases are the norm for complex disease.
        Eur J Hum Genet. 2010; 18: 1039-1043
        • Roos B.
        • Roos J.L.
        • Levy S.
        • et al.
        Strong association of de novo copy number mutations with sporadic schizophrenia.
        Nat Genet. 2008; 40: 880-885
      1. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/statistics/prevalence/schizophrenia.shtml. Accessed August 18, 2016.

        • Tandon R.
        • Keshavan M.
        • Nasrallah H.
        Schizophrenia, “Just the Facts” what we know in 2008. 2. Epidemiology and etiology.
        Schizophr Res. 2008; 102: 1-18
        • Lehman A.F.
        • Lieberman J.A.
        • Dixon L.B.
        • et al.
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Practice guideline for treatment of patients with schizophrenia, second edition.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2004; 161: 1-56
        • Emsley R.
        • Bonginkosi C.
        • Asmal L.
        • et al.
        The nature of relapse in schizophrenia.
        BMC Psychiatry. 2013; 13: 50
      2. Available at: http://www.tapartnership.org/SOC/SOCvalues.php. Accessed September 1, 2016.

        • Dvir Y.
        • Frazier J.
        Psychotic disorders in youth.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2013; 22
        • American Psychiatric Association
        Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.
        5th edition. American Psychiatric Association, Arlington (VA)2013
      3. Phillips J. Diagnosing schizophrenia from DSM II to DSM-5: A Quiz. Psychiatric Times. July 2011. Available at: http://www.psychiatrictimes.com/schizophrenia/diagnosing-schizophrenia-dsm-ii-dsm-5-quiz. Accessed August 28, 2016.

        • Driver D.
        • Gogtay N.
        • Rapoport J.
        Childhood onset schizophrenia and early onset schizophrenia spectrum disorders.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2013; 22: 539-555
        • Killackey E.
        • Alvarez-Jiminez M.
        • Allott K.
        • et al.
        Community rehabilitation and psychosocial interventions for psychotic disorders in youth.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2013; 22: 745-758
      4. Cavanaugh D, Goldman S, Friesen B, et al. Designing a recovery-oriented care model for adolescents and transition age youth with substance use or co-occurring mental health disorders: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Substance Abuse Treatment and Center for Mental Health Services; 2009. Report from CSAT/CMHS/SAMHSA Consultative Session. November 13–14, 2008. Available at: https://gucchdtacenter.georgetown.edu/resources/Recovery_Report_Adolescents%20-%20FINAL.pdf. Accessed January 18, 2017.

        • Chan V.
        Special needs: scholastic disability accommodations from K-12 and transitions to higher education.
        Curr Psychiatry Rep. 2016; 18: 21
      5. American Psychiatric Association. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th text revision edition. Washington, DC: American Psychaitric Association; 2000.

        • Gold L.
        DSM-5 and the assessment of functioning: The World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0).
        J Am Acad Psychiatry Law. 2014; 42: 173-181
        • Stentebjerg-Olesen M.
        • Pagsberg A.
        • Fink-Jensen A.
        • et al.
        Clinical characteristics and predictors of outcome of schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis in children and adolescents: a systematic review.
        J Child Adolesc Psychopharmacol. 2016; 26: 410-427
        • Nour M.
        • Nour M.
        • Tsatalou O.
        • et al.
        Schizophrenia on YouTube.
        Psychiatr Serv. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1176/appo.ps.201500541
        • Rapoport J.
        • Chavez A.
        • Greenstein D.
        • et al.
        Autism-spectrum disorders and childhood onset schizophrenia: clinical and biological contributions to a relationship revisited.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2009; 48: 10-18
        • Cochran D.
        • Dvir Y.
        • Frazier J.
        “Autism-plus” spectrum disorders: intersection with psychosis and the schizophrenia spectrum.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2013; 22: 609-627
        • Tohen M.
        • Khalasa H.
        • Salvatore P.
        • et al.
        The McLean-Harvard first-episode project: early course in 114 cases of first-episode nonaffective psychoses.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2016; 77: 781-788
        • Kotov R.
        • Leong S.
        • Mojtaba I.
        • et al.
        Boundaries of schizoaffective disorder revisiting Kraepelin.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2013; 70: 1276-1286
        • Murru A.
        • Pacchiarotti I.
        • Nivoli A.
        • et al.
        What we know and what we don't know about the treatment of schizoaffective disorder.
        J Euroneuro. 2011; 21: 680-690
        • Rink L.
        • Pagel T.
        • Franklin J.
        • et al.
        Characteristics and heterogeneity of schizoaffective disorder compared with unipolar depression and schizophrenia - a systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
        J Affect Disord. 2016; 191: 8-14
        • Shevlin M.
        • Dorahy M.
        • Adamson G.
        Childhood traumas and hallucinations: an analysis of the National Comorbidity Study.
        J Psychiatr Res. 2007; 41: 222-228
        • Daalman K.
        • Diedren K.
        • Derks E.
        • et al.
        Childhood trauma and auditory verbal hallucinations.
        Psychol Med. 2012; 42: 2475-2484
        • Holshausen K.
        • Bowie C.
        • Harkness K.
        The relation of childhood maltreatment to psychotic symptoms in adolescents and young adults with depression.
        J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2016; 45: 241-247
        • Dvir Y.
        • Denietolis B.
        • Frazier J.
        Childhood trauma and psychosis.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2013; 22: 629-643
        • Gorke D.K.S.
        Substance abuse and psychosis.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2013; 22: 643-654
        • Young S.
        • Corley R.
        • Stallings M.
        • et al.
        Substance use, abuse and dependence in adolescence: prevalence, symptom profiles and correlates.
        Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002; 68: 309-322
        • Crean R.
        • Crane N.
        • Mason B.
        An evidence based review of acute and long-term effects of cannabis use on executive cognitive functions.
        J Addict Med. 2011; 5: 1-8
        • Lin S.
        • Wang L.
        • Chen Y.
        • et al.
        Differences in clinical features of methamphetamines users with persistent psychosis and patients with schizophrenia.
        Psychopathology. 2016; 49: 108-115
        • Grant K.M.
        • LeVan T.
        • Wells S.
        • et al.
        Methamphetamine-associated psychosis.
        J Neuroimmune Pharmacol. 2012; 7: 113-139
        • Rounsville B.
        DSM-V research agenda: substance abuse/psychosis comorbidity.
        Schizophr Bull. 2007; 33: 947-952
        • Litt M.
        • Kadden R.
        • Petry N.
        Behavioral treatment for marijuana dependence: randomized trial of contingency management and self-efficacy enhancement.
        Addict Behav. 2013; 38: 1764-1775
        • Manrique-Garcia E.
        • Ponce de Leon A.
        • Dalman C.
        • et al.
        Cannabis, psychosis, and mortality: a cohort study of 50,373 Swedish men.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016; 173: 790-798
        • Kelley M.
        • Wan C.
        • Broussard B.
        • et al.
        Marijuana use in the immediate 5-year premorbid period is associated with increased risk of onset of schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders.
        Schizophr Res. 2016; 171: 62-67
        • Bechtold J.
        • Hipwell A.
        • Lewis D.
        • et al.
        Concurrent and sustained cumulative effects of adolescent marijuana use on subclinical psychotic symptoms.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016; 173: 781-789
        • Henquet C.
        • Krabbendam I.
        • Spauwen J.
        • et al.
        Prospective cohort study of cannabis use, predisposition for psychosis, and psychotic symptoms in young people.
        BMJ. 2005; 330: 11
        • Niemelä S.
        • Sourander A.
        • Surcel H.
        • et al.
        Prenatal nicotine exposure and risk of schizophrenia among offspring in a national birth cohort.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016; 173: 799-806
        • Levin E.
        • Rezvani A.
        Nicotinic interactions with antipsychotic drugs, models of schizophrenia and impacts on cognitive function.
        Biochem Pharmacol. 2007; 74: 1182-1191
      6. Available at: http://www.samhsa.gov/specific-populations/age-gender-based. Accessed September 1, 2016.

        • Peralta V.
        • de Jalón E.
        • Camps M.
        • et al.
        The meaning of childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity symptoms in patients with a first-episode of schizophrenia-spectrum psychosis.
        Schizophr Res. 2011; 126: 28-35
        • Donev D.R.
        • Greenstein D.
        • Davidson A.
        • et al.
        Comorbidity of schizophrenia and adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
        World J Biol Psychiatry. 2011; 12: 52-56
        • Levy E.
        • Traicu A.
        • Iyer S.
        • et al.
        Psychotic disorders comorbid with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: an important knowledge gap.
        Can J Psychiatry. 2015; 60: s48-s52
        • Mosholder A.
        • Gelperin K.
        • Hammad T.
        • et al.
        Hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms associated with use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder drugs in children.
        Pediatrics. 2009; 123: 611-616
        • Abell F.
        • Hare D.
        An experimental investigation of the phenomenology of delusional beliefs in people with Asperger syndrome.
        Autism. 2005; 9: 515-531
        • Bosco F.
        • Gabbatore I.
        • Tirassa M.
        A broad assessment of theory of mind in adolescence: the complexity of mindreading.
        Conscious Cogn. 2014; 24: 84-97
        • Craig J.
        • Hatton C.
        • Craig F.
        • et al.
        Persecutory beliefs, attributes and theory of mind: comparison of patients with paranoid delusions, Asperger's syndrome and healthy controls.
        Schizophr Res. 2004; 69: 29-33
        • Cederlof M.
        • Petterson E.
        • Sarislan A.
        • et al.
        The association between childhood autistic traits and adolescent psychotic experiences is explained by general neuropsychiatric problems.
        Am J Med Genet B. 2015; 171B: 153-159
        • Happe F.
        An advanced test of theory of mind: understanding of story characters' thoughts and feelings by able autistic, mentally handicapped and normal children and adults.
        J Autism Dev Disord. 1994; 24: 129-154
        • Kirch D.
        • Keith S.
        • Matthews S.
        Research on first-episode psychosis: report on a national institute of health workshop.
        Schizophr Bull. 1992; 18: 179-184
        • Marder S.
        The NIMH-MATRICS project for developing cognition-enhancing agents for schizophrenia.
        Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2006; 8: 109-113
      7. Available at: http://www.mhs.com/product.aspx?gr=cli&prod=mccb&id=overview. Accessed September 1, 2016.

        • McCleery A.
        • Ventua J.
        • Kern R.
        • et al.
        Cognitive functioning in first-episode schizophrenia: MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB) profile of impairment.
        Schizophr Res. 2014; 157: 33-39
        • Green M.
        • Harris J.
        • Nuechterlein K.
        The MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery: what we know 6 years later.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2014; 171 ([commentary]): 1151-1154
        • Srihari V.
        • Tek C.
        • Kucukgoncu S.
        • et al.
        First-episode services for psychotic disorders in the U.S. public sector: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.
        Psychiatr Serv. 2015; 66: 705-712
        • Muser K.
        • Penn D.
        • Addington J.
        • et al.
        The NAVIGATE program for first-episode psychosis: rationale, overview and description of psychosocial components.
        Psychiatr Serv. 2015; 66: 680-690
        • Kane J.
        • Robinson D.
        • Schooler N.
        • et al.
        Comprehensive versus usual community care for first-episode psychosis: 2-year outcomes from the NIMH RAISE early treatment program.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016; 173: 362-372
        • Nasrallah H.
        • Keshavan M.
        • Benes F.
        • et al.
        Proceedings and data from the Schizophrenia Summit: a critical appraisal to improve the management of schizophrenia.
        J Clin Psychiatry. 2009; 70: 4-46
        • Woodberry K.
        • Shapiro D.
        • Bryant B.
        • et al.
        Progress and future directions in research on psychosis prodrome: a review for clinicians.
        Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2016; 24: 87-103
        • Velakoulis D.
        • Wood S.
        • Wong M.
        • et al.
        Hippocampal and amygdala volumes according to psychosis stage and diagnosis a magnetic resonance imaging study of chronic schizophrenia, first-episode psychosis, and ultra-high-risk individuals.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2006; 63: 139-149
        • Watsky R.
        • Ludov K.
        • Pollar D.
        • et al.
        Severity of cortical thinning correlates with schizophrenia spectrum symptoms.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2016; 55: 130-136
        • Kenney J.
        • Anderson-Schmidt H.
        • Scanlon C.
        • et al.
        Cognitive course in first-episode psychosis and clinical correlates: a 4 year longitudinal study using the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery.
        Schizophr Res. 2015; 169: 101-108
        • Stone W.
        • Msholam-Gately R.
        • Giuliano A.
        • et al.
        Healthy adolescent performance on the MATRICS Consensus Cognitive Battery (MCCB): developmental data from two samples of volunteers.
        Schizophr Res. 2016; 172: 106-113
        • Harvey P.
        • Velligan D.
        • Bellack A.
        Performance-based measures of functional skills: usefulness in clinical treatment studies.
        Schizophr Bull. 2007; 33: 1138-1148
        • Cariaga-Martinez A.
        • Saiz-Ruiz J.
        • Alelú-Paz R.
        From linkage studies to epigenetics: what we know and what we need to know in the neurobiology of schizophrenia.
        Front Neurosci. 2016; 10: 202
        • Asarnow R.
        • Forsyth J.
        Genetics of childhood-onset schizophrenia.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2013; 22: 675-687
        • Brent B.
        • Thermenos H.
        • Keshavan M.
        • et al.
        Gray matter alteration in schizophrenia high-risk youth and early-onset schizophrenia a review of structural MRI findings.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2013; 22: 689-714
        • Thompson P.
        • Vidal C.
        • Giedd J.
        • et al.
        Mapping adolescent brain change reveals dynamic wave of accelerated gray mater loss in very early-onset schizophrenia.
        Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001; 98: 11650-11655
        • Andreasen N.
        • Liu D.
        • Ziebell S.
        • et al.
        Relapse duration, treatment intensity, and brain tissue loss in schizophrenia: a prospective longitudinal MRI study.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2013; 170: 609-615
        • Kempton M.
        • Stahl D.
        • Williams S.
        • et al.
        Progressive lateral ventricular enlargement in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis of longitudinal MRI studies.
        Schizophr Res. 2010; 120: 54-62
        • Nelson M.
        • Saykin A.
        • Flashmam L.
        • et al.
        Hippocampal volume reduction in schizophrenia as assessed by magnetic resonance imaging: a meta-analytic study.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 1998; 55: 433-440
        • Chung Y.
        • Cannon D.
        Brain imaging during the transition from psychosis prodrome to schizophrenia.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015; 203: 336-341
        • Seidman L.
        • Nordentoft M.
        New targets for prevention of schizophrenia: is it time for interventions in the premorbid phase?.
        Schizophr Bull. 2015; 41: 795-800
        • Miller T.
        • McGlashan T.
        • Woods S.
        • et al.
        Symptom assessment in schizophrenic prodromal states.
        Psychiatr Q. 1999; 70: 273-287
        • McFarlane W.
        Prevention of the first episode of psychosis.
        Psychiatr Clin North Am. 2011; 34: 95-107
        • Klosterkötter J.
        • Ruhrmann S.
        • Schultze-Lutter F.
        • et al.
        The European Prediction of Psychosis Study (EPOS): integrating early recognition and intervention in Europe.
        World Psychiatry. 2005; 4: 161-168
        • Nelson B.
        • Yuen H.
        • Wood S.
        • et al.
        Long-term follow up of a group at ultra high risk (“prodromal”) for psychosis: the PACE 400 Study.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2013; 70: 793-802
        • Addington J.
        • Cadenhead K.
        • Cannon T.
        • et al.
        North American prodrome longitudinal study: a collaborative multisite approach to prodromal schizophrenia research.
        Schizophr Bull. 2007; 33: 665-672
        • Addington J.
        • Liu L.
        • Buchy L.
        • et al.
        North American Prodrome Longitudinal Study (NAPLS 2): the prodromal symptoms.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 2005; 203: 328-335
        • Cadenhead K.
        • Mirzakhanian H.
        A case of attenuated psychosis syndrome: a broad differential diagnosis requires broad-spectrum treatment.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016; 173: 321-329
      8. Available at: http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/pdf/Brief%20CAARMS%20with%20SOFAS%202016.pdf. Accessed May 30, 2016.

        • Wunderink L.
        • Nienhuis F.
        • Systema S.
        • et al.
        Predictive validity of proposed remission criteria in first-episode schizophrenic patients responding to antipsychotics.
        Schizophr Bull. 2007; 33: 792-796
        • Yung A.
        • Yuen H.
        • McGorry P.
        • et al.
        Mapping the onset of psychosis: the comprehensive assessment of at-risk mental states.
        Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2005; 39: 964-971
        • Miller T.
        • McGlashan T.
        • Rosen J.
        • et al.
        Prodromal assessment with the structured interview for prodromal syndromes and the scale of prodromal symptoms: predictive validity, interrater reliability, and training to reliability.
        Schizophr Bull. 2003; 29: 703-715
        • Miller T.J.
        • McGlashan T.H.
        • Rosen J.L.
        • et al.
        Prospective diagnosis of the initial prodrome for schizophrenia based on the structured interview for prodromal syndromes: preliminary evidence of interrater reliability and predictive value.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2002; 159: 863-865
        • Carrión R.
        • Cornblatt B.
        • Burton C.
        • et al.
        Personalized prediction of psychosis: external validation of the NAPLS-2 psychosis risk calculator with the EDIPPP Project.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016; 173: 989-996
      9. Available at: http://cape42.homestead.com/files/CAPE-42.htm. Accessed September 1, 2016.

      10. Available at: http://www.schizophrenia.com/sztest/primetest.pdf. Accessed September 1, 2016.

        • Loewy R.
        • Pearson R.
        • Vinogradov S.
        • et al.
        Psychosis risk screening with the prodromal questionnaire - brief version (PQ-B).
        Schizophr Res. 2011; 129: 42-46
        • Kline E.
        • Thompson E.
        • Demro C.
        • et al.
        Longitudinal validation of psychosis risk screening tools.
        Schizophr Res. 2015; 165: 116-122
        • Ising H.
        • Veling W.
        • Loewy R.
        • et al.
        The validity of the 16-item version of the Prodromal Questionnaire (PQ-16) to screen for ultra high risk of developing psychosis in the general help-seeking population.
        Schizophr Bull. 2012; 38: 1288-1296
        • Mossaheb N.
        • Becker J.
        • Schaefer M.
        • et al.
        The Community Assessment of Psychic Experience (CAPE) questionnaire as a screening-instrument in the detection of individuals at ultra-high risk for psychosis.
        Schizophr Res. 2012; 141: 210-214
        • Addington J.
        • Stowkowy J.
        • Weiser M.
        Screening tools for clinical high risk for psychosis.
        Early Interv Psychiatry. 2015; 9: 345-356
        • Shevlin M.
        • Murphy J.
        • Dorahy M.
        • et al.
        The distribution of positive psychosis-like symptoms in the population: a latent class analysis of the National Comorbidity Survey.
        Schizophr Res. 2007; 89: 101-109
        • Schreier H.
        Hallucinations in nonpsychotic children: more common than we think?.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1999; 38: 623-625
        • McGee R.
        • Poulton S.W.R.
        Hallucinations in nonpsychotic children.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2000; 19 ([Letter to the Editor]): 12-13
        • Jadri R.
        • Bartels-Velthuis A.
        • Debbane M.
        • et al.
        From phenomenology to neurophysiological understanding of hallucinations in children and adolescents.
        Schizophr Bull. 2014; 40: S221-S232
        • Johns L.
        • Kompus K.
        • Connell M.
        • et al.
        Auditory verbal hallucinations in persons with and without a need for care.
        Schizophr Bull. 2014; 40: S255-S264
        • de Leede-Smith S.
        • Barkus E.
        A comprehensive review of auditory verbal hallucinations: lifetime prevalence, correlates and mechanisms in healthy and clinical individuals.
        Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7: 1-25
        • McGrath J.
        • Saha S.
        • Al-Hamzawi A.
        • et al.
        The bidirectional association between psychotic experiences and DSM-IV mental disorders.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016; 173: 997-1006
        • Scott J.
        • Martin G.
        • Bor W.
        • et al.
        The prevalence and correlates of hallucinations in Australian adolescents: results from a national survey.
        Schizophr Res. 2008; 107: 179-185
        • van Os J.
        • Hannsen M.
        • Bijl R.
        • et al.
        Straus (1969) revisited: a psychosis continuum in the general population?.
        Schizophr Res. 2000; 459: 11-20
        • Hanssen M.
        • Bak M.
        • Bijl M.
        • et al.
        The incidence and outcome of subclinical psychotic experiences in the general population.
        Br J Clin Psychol. 2005; 44: 181-191
        • Rössler W.
        • Rieche-Rössler A.
        • Angst J.
        • et al.
        Psychotic experiences in the general population: a twenty-year prospective community study.
        Schizophr Res. 2007; 92: 1-14
        • Bartels-Velthusis A.
        • Wigman J.
        • Jenner J.
        • et al.
        Course of auditory vocal hallucinations in childhood: 11-year follow up study.
        Acta Psychiatr Scand. 2016; 134: 6-15
        • Loewy R.
        • Johnson J.
        • Cannon T.
        Self-report of attenuated psychotic experiences in a college population.
        Schizophr Res. 2007; 93: 144-151
        • Yung A.
        • Nelson B.
        • Baker K.
        • et al.
        Psychotic-like experiences in a community sample of adolescents: implications for the continuum model of psychosis and prediction of schizophrenia.
        Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2009; 43: 118-128
        • Sommer I.
        • Daalman K.
        • Rietkerk T.
        • et al.
        Healthy individuals with auditory verbal hallucinations: who are they? Psychiatric assessments of a selected sample of 103 subjects.
        Schizophr Bull. 2010; 36: 633-641
        • Nelson B.
        • Yung A.
        • Bechdolf A.
        • et al.
        The phenomenological critique and self-disturbance: implications for ultra-high risk (“prodrome”) research.
        Schizophr Bull. 2007; 34: 381-392
        • Sikich L.
        • et al.
        Diagnosis and evaluation of hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms in children and adolescents.
        Child Adolesc Psychiatric Clin N Am. 2013; 22: 655-673
        • Yung A.
        • Phillips L.J.
        • Yuen H.
        • et al.
        Risk factors for psychosis in an ultra high risk group: psychopathology and clinical features.
        Schizophr Res. 2004; 67: 131-142
        • Stafford M.
        • Jackson H.
        • Mayo-Wilson E.
        • et al.
        Early interventions to prevent psychosis: systematic review and meta-analysis.
        BMJ. 2013; 346: 1-13
        • Fusar-Poli P.
        • Bonoldi I.
        • Yung A.
        • et al.
        Predicting psychosis: meta-analysis of transition outcomes.
        Arch Genpsychiatry. 2012; 69: 220-229
        • Fusar-Poli P.
        • Borgward S.
        • Bechdolf A.
        • et al.
        The psychosis high-risk state: a comprehensive state-of-the-art review.
        JAMA Psychiatry. 2013; 70: 107-120
        • van der Gaag M.
        • Smit F.
        • Bechdolt A.
        • et al.
        Preventing a first episode of psychosis: meta-analysis of randomized controlled prevention trials for 12 month and longer-term follow ups.
        Schizophr Res. 2013; 149: 56-62
        • Addington J.
        • Cornblatt B.
        • Cadenhead K.
        • et al.
        At clinical high risk for psychosis: outcome for nonconverters.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2011; 168: 800-805
        • Morcillo C.
        • Stochl J.
        • Russo D.
        • et al.
        First-rank symptoms and premorbid adjustment in young individuals at increased risk of developing psychosis.
        Psychopathology. 2015; 48: 120-126
        • McGlashan T.
        • Zipursky R.
        • Perkins D.
        • et al.
        The PRIME North American randomized double-blind clinical trial of olanzapine versus placebo in patients at risk of being prodromally symptomatic for psychosis. I. Study rationale and design.
        Schizophr Res. 2003; 61: 7-18
        • Amminger G.
        • Schafer M.
        • Papageorgiiou K.
        • et al.
        Long-chain omega-3 fatty acids for indicated prevention of psychotic disorders: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
        Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2010; 67: 146-154
        • Amminger G.
        • Schäfer M.
        • Schlögelhofer M.
        • et al.
        Longer-term outcome in the prevention of psychotic disorders by the Vienna omega-3 study.
        Nat Commun. 2015; 6: 7934
        • Miklowitz D.
        • O'Brien M.
        • Schlosser D.
        • et al.
        Family-focused treatment for adolescents and young adults at high risk for psychosis: results of a randomized trial.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014; 53: 848-858
        • McFarlane W.
        • Levin B.
        • Travis L.
        • et al.
        Clinical and functional outcomes after 2 years in the early detection and intervention for the prevention of psychosis multisite effectiveness trial.
        Schizophr Bull. 2015; 41: 30-43
        • Calvo A.
        • Moreno M.
        • Ruiz-Sancho A.
        • et al.
        Intervention for adolescents with early onset psychosis and their families: a randomized controlled trial.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; 53: 688-696
        • Calvo A.
        • Moreno M.
        • Ruiz-Sancho A.
        • et al.
        Psychoeducation group intervention for adolescents with psychosis and their families: a two year follow-up.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2015; 54: 984-990
        • Sadath A.
        • Muralidhar D.
        • Vrambally S.
        • et al.
        Family intervention in first-episode psychosis: a qualitative systematic review.
        Sage Open. 2015; https://doi.org/10.117/2158244015613108
        • McFarlane W.
        Family interventions for schizophrenia and the psychoses: a review.
        Fam Process. 2016; 55: 460-482
        • Ising H.
        • Lokkerbo J.
        • Rietdijk J.
        • et al.
        Four-year cost-effectiveness of cognitive behavior therapy for preventing first episode psychosis: the Dutch Early Detection Intervention Evaluation (EDIE-NL) Trial.
        Schizophr Bull. 2016; https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sbw084
        • van der Gaag M.
        • Nieman D.
        • Rietdjik J.
        • et al.
        Cognitive behavioral therapy for subjects at ultrahigh risk for developing psychosis: a randomized controlled clinical trial.
        Schizophr Bull. 2012; 38: 1180-1188
        • Lewandowksi K.
        Cognitive remediation for the treatment of cognitive dysfunction in the early course of psychosis.
        Harv Rev Psychiatry. 2016; 24: 164-172
        • Nuechterlein H.
        • Ventura J.
        • McEwen S.
        • et al.
        Enhancing cognitive training through aerobic exercise after a first schizophrenia episode: theoretical conception and pilot study.
        Schizophr Bull. 2016; 42: s42-s52
      11. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Psychosis and schizophrenia in children and young people: recognition and management 2013. Clinical guideline; Available at: nice.org.uk/guidance/cg155nice.org.uk/guidance/cg155.

        • Morrison A.
        • Barratt S.
        What are the components of CBT for psychosis? A Delphi study.
        Front Psychol. 2010; 36: 136-142
      12. Hagen R. Turkington D. Berge R. CBT for psychosis: a symptom-based approach. The International Society for the Psychological Treatments of the Schizophrenias and Other Psychoses. Routledge, 2011
      13. Norcross J. Psychotherapy relationships that work. 2nd edition. Oxford University Press, 2011
        • Thomas N.
        What's really wrong with cognitive behavior therapy for psychosis?.
        Front Psychol. 2015; https://doi.org/10.3389/psyg.2015.00232
        • Tai S.
        • Turkington D.
        The evolution of cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: current practice and recent developments.
        Schizophr Bull. 2009; 35: 865-873
        • Turner D.
        • van der Gaag M.
        • Karyotaki E.
        • et al.
        Psycholgocial interventions for psychosis: a meta-analysis of comparative outcome studies.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2014; 171: 525-528
        • Kulpers E.
        • Yesufu-Udenchuku A.
        • Taylor C.
        • et al.
        Management of psychosis and schizophrenia in adults: summary of updated NICE guidance.
        BMJ. 2014; 348https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.g1173
        • McClellan J.
        • Stock S.
        Practice parameter for the assessment and treatment of children and adolescents with schizophrenia.
        J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2013; 52: 976-990
        • Buchanan R.
        • Kreyenbuhl J.
        • Kelly D.
        • et al.
        The 2009 schizophrenia PORT psychopharmacological treatment recommendations and summary statements.
        Schizophr Bull. 2010; 36: 71-93
        • Dixon L.
        • Dickerson F.
        • Bellack A.
        • et al.
        The 2009 schizophrenia PORT psychosocial treatment recommendations and summary statements.
        Schizophr Bull. 2010; 36: 47-80
        • Christian R.
        • Saavedra L.
        • Gaynes B.
        • et al.
        Future research needs for first- and second- generation antipsychotics for children and young adults.
        Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville (MD)2012 (Prepared by the RTI-UNC Evidence-based Practice Center under Contract No. 290 2007 10056 I); Future Research Needs Paper No. 13
        • Maglione M.
        • Ruelez Maher A.
        • Hu J.
        • et al.
        Off-label use of atypical antipsychotics: an update. (prepared by the Southern California Evidence-based Practice Center under contract no. HHSA290-2007-10062-1).
        Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Rockville (MD)2011 (Comparative Effectiveness Review No. 43)
        • Helfer B.
        • Samara M.
        • Huhn M.
        • et al.
        Efficacy and safety of antidepressants added to antipsychotics for schizophrenia: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
        Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Sep 1; 173: 876-886
        • Hor K.
        • Taylor M.
        Suicide and schizophrenia: a systematic review of rates and risk factors.
        J Psychopharm. 2010; : 81-90
        • Kreyenbuhl J.
        • Medoff D.
        • McEvoy J.
        • et al.
        The RAISE connection program: psychopharmacological treatment of people with a first episode of schizophrenia.
        Psychiatr Serv Adv. 2015; 67: 1300-1306
        • Pinniti N.
        • Mago R.
        • Leon J.D.
        Coffee, cigarettes, and meds: what are the metabolic effects?.
        Psychiatr Times. 2005; (Available at:) (Accessed August 28, 2016)
        • Rosenheck R.
        • Leslie D.
        • Sint K.
        • et al.
        Cost effectiveness of comprehensive, integrated care for first episode psychosis in the NIMH RAISE early treatment program.
        Schizophr Bull. 2016; 42: 896-906
        • Marino L.
        • Nossel I.
        • Choi J.
        • et al.
        The RAISE connection program for early psychosis: secondary outcomes and mediators and moderators of improvement.
        J Nerv Ment Dis. 2015; 203: 365-371
        • Essock S.
        • Goldman H.
        • Hogan M.
        • et al.
        State partnerships for first-episode psychosis Services.
        Psychiatr Serv. 2015; 66: 671-673